Indus Valley Civilization
The civilization that flourished in the Indus valley is usually thought to be one of the earliest civilizations ever to exist on earth. It is believed that this civilization thrived in the Indian subcontinent between the years 3300 BC and 1700 BC. Because so many of their villages were located along the Indus River and its tributaries, this culture is often referred to as the “Indus Valley Civilization.” The Indus River can be found throughout the entirety of Pakistan.
Mohenjo Daro and Harappa were the two largest cities that used to exist during the time of the Indus Valley Civilization. The fact that the people who lived in the Indus valley were skilled planners is supported by the fact that their artefacts, town construction works, drainage and sewer systems, warehouses, and other such things have been discovered.
People of the Indus valley civilization made extensive use of the metal bronze, which is one of the key distinguishing elements of that civilization. Because of this, it is more commonly known as the bronze age civilisation. For the benefit of your next exams, it is important to take note of the fact that the people who lived in the Indus valley civilization were not familiar with the metal iron. Archaeologists have found objects made of bronze metal as a result of the excavations they have conducted so far.
There is also no evidence to suggest that the people who lived in the Indus valley civilization were warriors. Archaeologists have not unearthed any remnants of warfare in their excavations so far. Instead, there were merchants who were quite active in exchanging their wares with other civilizations, including Mesopotamia.
Toys that were found in the Indus Valley give the impression that the people who lived there enjoyed a good time. Because of this, for a considerable amount of time, historians believed that the population of the Indus valley culture consisted entirely of children. However, this was not the case, as artefacts belonging to adults, such as a chess set, were also discovered.
As a result of the unearthing of artefacts containing prints of animals such as elephants, bulls, and other animals, scholars believe that the Indus people practised the religion of animism. Their religious perspective appears to indicate that they believed in the existence of supernatural beings or forces.
Their primary means of economic support came from their agricultural endeavours. They were also the masterminds behind the design of irrigation systems that made use of the appropriate channelling to transfer water to agricultural fields. Pottery and jewellery were also common items in their culture. Bricks made of baked clay were used in the construction of their homes.
The civilisation in the Indus valley featured several social classes, including rulers and followers. The rulers of the land lived in citadels, which are fortified buildings typically located on higher ground, while their followers, who were typically farmers and merchants, lived outside the citadels.
There is a lack of knowledge regarding the exact reasons for the collapse or demise of the Indus valley civilization. However, a number of academics have come up with a number of different hypotheses to explain their collapse. These hypotheses include devastation caused by terrible floods, drought, hunger, volcanic eruptions, and a devastation caused by an invasion by Aryans, who are people from Central Asia.